|Many empirical studies about violence in schools were conducted in the last years, most of them investigating prevalence and incidence; only few of them were evaluation studies. However, there is still a lack in defining minimal standards for evaluation. In the following I would like to summarize some important points of possible standards: Program evaluation should be done by external experts and not by the program trainers themselves. A detailed report of the operationalization of the variables is very important. Many studies only tell if there was an improvement or not, but do not give specific information how improvement was measured. The data collection should be done by different methods: self report questionnaires (for pupils or teachers, depending on the target group of intervention), different rating forms (peer-rating, expert rating etc.) and also observational data. Evaluation designs should include several time points of data collection. Most intervention studies include only a pre- and post measurement. As we found out in our studies there is an increase of aggression during a school year. This trend could overlap the effects of an otherwise successful intervention program. To compare empirical evaluation we do not need necessarily the same instruments. What needed is: very detailed information about the programs (aims, process, involved persons etc.) and the specific circumstances (situation in school etc., personality of the trainer), a clear description of the operationalization (how measurement was done) and an estimation of the effect sizes of a resulting improvement.
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Evaluation und Beratung
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